The Vitamin D Receptor

The vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a proteins that is stimulated by calciferol. It is linked to maintaining the mineral equilibrium in the body and leading to growth and hair creation. It also interacts with adipose tissues.

VDRs happen to be expressed inside the parathyroid glands, intestines, epithelial cells, and many immune system cell types. They are believed to regulate the intestinal compression of calcium supplements, and to mediate some of the effects of vitamin D in bone repair. Also, they are thought to enjoy an important position in metabolism.

VDR is found in a variety of tissue, including epithelial cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and skin keratinocytes. However , they can be most widely stated in the kidneys and your bones.

The VDR is phosphorylated on serine elements by a number of protein kinases. These kinases include PKA and PKC. The effect of these kinases upon VDR is definitely ligand based. Specifically, the phosphorylation of Ser51 by simply PKC decreased VDR nuclear localization. Likewise, phosphorylation of Ser182 by PKA reduced RXR heterodimerization.

Research have shown that VDRs can be found in a subsection, subdivision, subgroup, subcategory, subclass of glial cells, particularly in oligodendrocytes in white matter. Although VDR immunoreactivity has been detected in a number of glial cell lines, no research has been shown that the existence of VDR in glia is a cause for increased likelihood of tumorigenesis.

In addition , VDR appears to be present in a subset of neurons. Actually nuclear discoloration has been has confirmed in real human cortex and glial cell-lines.

A large 220-kDa protein is found in human primary glioblastoma cells. In contrast, a small recombinant VDR-like protein was produced.

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